What is the best oil to lubricate your model train + what NOT to use

From time to time every model locomotive needs oiling to keep it running smoothly. But what’s the best fluid to use?

Model trains are like cars. They feature moving mechanical components (gears etc) that need lubricating to operate smoothly. You don’t want the gears sticking or locking together. This is what lubricants prevent, reducing friction which reduces their lifespan.

What’s the difference between oil, grease and lubricant

Oil and grease are both lubricants and are closely related.

Oil is a liquid while grease is usually an oil that has been thickened with additives to prevent it from running off surfaces so quickly but when compressed — between the cogs of gears for example — it still protects them and reduces the friction just like oil.

Given their thicker composition greases stay in place longer and are typically used on internal surfaces that are hard to reach and which can’t be oiled regularly or on external gears where the oil will run off and may cause other problems, in the case of model railways making the rails slippery for example.

Alongside these two types of lubricant are non-liquid forms.

These have the benefits of fluid lubricants but are used in environments where the introduction of particles, carried as liquid oils flow around, would interfere with the operation. They are commonly used in railway points for example.

What oil and lubricants NOT to use

Just like my other common mistakes, I’ve learnt the hard way what not to use.  You can’t just use any oil or grease.

The gears and cogs of N, OO and HO scale model trains are much smaller than those in cars and other mechanical devices found in homes so normal oils won’t work and can even be harmful to the delicate plastics and paintwork of your rolling stock.

They can also eat through and dissolve many materials used in buildings and scenery around your layout, so if you spill some it can be bad news.

For these reasons never use cooking oil, WD40 or 3-in-1, even though some YouTubers suggest using it.

What is the best oil and grease to use for model trains?

Instead, use dedicated oils and greases for small components.

My personal recommendation for the best lubrication to use on gears is Labelle products labelled as plastic safe, in particular, Labelle #108 oil.

If you can’t get these, check the lubricant is plastic-compatible and light oil. Old-style sewing machine oil and fishing reel oils are recommended by many old-school modellers. Alternatively, Gaugemaster’s oil is recommended. I’ve also had success using Woodland Scenics lubricant.

How to apply oil and grease to trains

Aside from using the wrong type of oil for servicing locomotives, another common mistake is to swamp the gears, motors, axles and rods.

Do this and it’ll run into places you don’t want it, including the motor itself and onto the rails so the train wheels just slip and slide.

The Labelle oils recommended above come with a needle-point dispenser, just place this on the points to be oiled and squeeze a tiny drop out. Alternatively, dip a needle or straightened paper clip into the oil or grease and apply it.

I place it on the cogs, worm gears and coupling rods where they attach to the wheels. It can also be used to place a tiny amount in the holes where axles fit into the wheels on rolling stock.

Then run the motor on a rolling road for a few minutes and apply again. If you don’t have a rolling road, run it on some test tracks for a few minutes. Failing that, please it on some tissue paper to catch any oil that needs to run off and which will otherwise fall onto the rails and then onto your track to run.


In closing, don’t use 3-in-1, WD40 or cooking oils.

Instead, use a dedicated model trains lubricant such as Gaugemaster’s lubrication fluid or Labelle oil and greases and your engines and rolling stock will run smoother, longer and more reliably.

Finally. if you are planning on serving your model train, please consider how else to keep your railway and trains in tip-top condition. My guide on the 7 tips to keep your railway running smoothly covers everything you need to know.

Subscribe to my free email newsletter for more articles like this, plus the latest model train news, regular and exclusive tips, tutorials and guides. It's free, you can unsubscribe at any point and i promise never to sell your information. Click here to subscribe now.



Founder of ModelRailwayEngineer, Andy Leaning

Andy is a lifelong modeler, writer, and founder of modelrailwayengineer.com. He has been building model railways, dioramas, and miniatures for over 20 years. His passion for model making and railways began when he was a child, building his first layout at the age of seven.
Andy’s particular passion is making scenery and structures in 4mm scale, which he sells commercially. He is particularly interested in modelling the railways of South West England during the late Victorian/early Edwardian era, although he also enjoys making sci-fi and fantasy figures and dioramas. His website has won several awards, and he is a member of MERG (Model Railway Electronics Group) and the 009 Society.
When not making models, Andy lives in Surrey with his wife and teenage son. Other interests include history, science fiction, photography, and programming. Read more about Andy.

Afflliate disclosure:The links on this page may take you to carefully selected businesses, such as Hornby, Amazon, eBay and Scale Model Scenery, where you can purchase the product under affiliate programmes. This means I receive a small commission on any orders placed although the price you pay does not change. You can read my full affiliate policy here. I also sell my my own ready to use, pre-made and painted buildings and terrain features. browse the range.
  1. Hi:
    At the very top of this article is a photo showing a tube of DRY GRAPHITE. Some years ago I made the mistake of using GREESEM on a locomotive and it got between the drivers, that pick up track power, and the metal wheel hub. The metal particles completely shorted the loco out and GREESEM is is made by KADEE for model trains, but just the couplers and absolutely nothing else.

  2. Would gun maintenance oil which is very low viscosity be ok to lubricate an n gauge class 17 locomotive? Also i have no idea how to remove the body to expose the inner workings.

    • That’s an interesting question, I’ve never used gun oil on my locos but a friend of a friend has used it and says it worked well. I’m not sure if it would harm the plastic around the motor however. Re removing the body, there are usually one of two screws from the chasis into the body that hold it together, some models also have plastic clips that will need releasing. This video shows an example. I’d take it very carefully the first time as it’s easy to break the clips. Hope this helps. Andy

  3. WD-40 = Water Dispersant Formula 40.
    Never designed as a lubricant and it goes very gummy and sticky after a very short time frame. 100% avoid it at all costs. Vegetabal oils also turn to a gum after a short time.
    Thanks for the great information.

  4. Andy. Just to confirm your comment re not using WD40, I mistaken used it on a Lima model and it’s never been the same since. Steve

  5. Hi folks, it depends what I’m lubricating…and the model manufacture.
    Mainline stuff I’ve found beeswax furniture polish works on the gears and axles . It’s wise not to use 3- in-1 and some oils because the plastic they used eventually can crumble as it got brittle with age. I have used beeswax on other models as well as Hornby but not for valve gear. There I use Gaugemaster only and sparingly.

  6. Hi Andy, presumably the fact it’s used in small moving parts elsewhere would make it a candidate.
    Methinks I need to make a change. Pete.

    • Hi Pete, I’m sure it would work for the gears etc but it’s what it might do to surrounding elements that would concern me. Would appreciate knowing how you get on if you do try it. Andy

  7. Hi Andy, I was given an alternate to use, being light machine oil. I take it that a no no too. Thanks for info, I’ll take on board. Keep up the great work. Regards Pete

  8. Hi Andy. I was told to use 3 in 1 setting my layout up, but to use an opened out paper clip. Theory being it’s possible to just add a couple of drops in the required places or so I was told.

Add Comment

Required fields are marked *. Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.